Labeling Your Experience cont.

 

P

Perception- the mental process of organizing sensations into meaningful patterns (Coon, 2002).

 

Power-the capacity to exert force on or over something or someone (Haugaard, 2002).

 

Privilege-this refers to the idea that certain groups are automatically accepted as worthy of inclusion, good treatment, respect, support, and access to resources. White, middle-class, male, heterosexual, mature but not old, Christian, home-owning people are likely to be such a privileged group (McIntosh, 2003).

 

Psychology- the scientific study of human behavior (Coon, 2002).

 

R

Racial Identity Salience- the extent to which a person’s race is a relevant part of her or his self-concept at  a particular moment in time. Salience is dependent on the context of the situation as well as the person’s proclivity to define her or himself in terms of race (i.e. centrality) (Sellers, Rowley, Chavous, Shelto, & Smith, 1997).

 

Racial Microaggressions- brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults towards people of color (Sue, Rivera, Capodilupo, Lin, & Torino, 2010).

 

Racism- The systematic subordination of members of targeted racial groups who have relatively little social power in the United States (Blacks, Latino/as, Native Americans, and Asians), by the members of the agent racial group who have relatively more social power (Whites). This subordination is supported by the actions of individuals, cultural norms and values, and the institutional structures and practices in society (Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice: A Sourcebook, Adams, Bell, and Griffin, 1997).

 

Recategorization- shifts in the boundary between an individual’s in-group (“us”) and some out-group (“them”). AS a result of such recategorization, persons formerly viewed as out-group members may now be viewed as belonging in the in-group (Baron & Byrne, 2002).

 

S

Schema- mental frameworks centering around a specific theme that help us to organize social information (Baron & Byrne, 2002).

 

Self-Concept- a person’s answers to the question “Who am I?” (Myers, 2005).

 

Self Presentation- the act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression or an impression that corresponds to one’s ideals (Myers, 2005).

 

Self Affirmation- behavioral or cognitive events that bolster the perceived integrity of the self, and the person’s overall image as adequate, effective, and able to control important outcomes (Sherman & Cohen, 2006; Steele, 1988)

 

Self-Awareness- a self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself. It makes people more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispositions (Myers, 2005).

 

Self-Efficacy- a person’s belief in his or her ability or competency to perform a given task, reach a goal, or overcome an obstacle (Baron & Byrne, 2002).

 

Self-Esteem- a person’s overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth (Myers, 2005).

 

Self-Schema- beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information (Myers, 2005)

Social Categorization- the tendency to divide the social world into two separate categories: or in-group (“us”) and various out-groups (“them”) (Baron & Byrne, 2002).

 

Social Cognition- the manner in which we interpret, analyze, remember, and use information about the social world (Baron & Byrne, 2002).

 

Social Comparison- evaluating one’s abilities and opinions by comparing oneself to others (Myers, 2005).

 

Social Justice- Justice in terms of the distribution of wealth, opportunities, and privileges within a society:individuality gives way to the struggle for social justice (Oxford Dictionary, 2015).

 

Social Identity- A person’s definition of who he or she is, including personal attributes and attributes shared with others, such as gender and race (Baron & Byrne, 2002).

 

Social Identity Theory- a theory suggesting that individuals seek to enhance their own self-esteem by identifying with specific social groups (Baron & Byrne, 2002; Tajfel & Turner, 1979).

 

Social Norm- rules indicating how individuals are expected to behave in specific situations (Baron & Byrne, 2002).

 

Social Psychology- the scientific study of how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations (Coon, 2002).

 

Social Support- the physical and psychological comfort provided by one’s friends and family (Baron & Byrne, 2002).

 

Socialization- the lifelong process whereby an individual's behavioral patterns, values, standards, skills, attitudes, and motives are shaped to conform to those regarded as desirable in a particular society (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2002). 

 

Stereotype- beliefs to the effect that all members of specific social groups share certain traits or characteristics. Stereotypes are cognitive frameworks that strongly influence the processing of oncoming social information (Baron & Byrne, 2002).

 

Stereotype Threat- the concern on the part of persons who are the target of stereotypes that they will be evaluated in terms of this stereotype (Baron & Byrne, 2002). Members of various groups perform more poorly on cognitively demanding tasks when they fear their behavior will be interpreted through the lens of negative social stereotypes (Johns, Inzlicht, & Schmader, 2008).

 

Stress Management- the application of behavioral strategies to reduce stress and improve coping skills (Coon, 2002).

Stress Reaction- they physical response to stress, consisting mainly of bodily changes related to autonomic nervous system arousal (Coon, 2002).

 

Stressor- a specific condition or event in the environment that challenges or threatens a person (Coon, 2002).

 

Stigma- a personal characteristic that at least some other individuals perceive negatively (Baron & Byrne, 2002).

 

T

Thought Suppression- efforts to prevent certain thoughts from entering consciousness (Baron & Byrne, 2002).

 

Tokenism- instances in which individuals perform trivial positive actions for members of out-groups toward whom they feel strong prejudice. Such tokenistic behaviors are then used as an excuse for refusing more meaningful beneficial actions for these groups (Baron & Byrne, 2002).

 

Trivialization- a technique for reducing dissonance in which the importance of attitudes and behaviors that are inconsistent with each other is cognitively reduced (Baron & Byrne, 2002).

 

 

References

 

Adams, M., Bell, L. A., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (2007). Teaching for diversity and social justice. Routledge.

 

The American Heritage Dictionary, 4th Edition. City: Turtleback

Asamoah, Y. W. (Ed.). (1996). Innovations in delivering culturally sensitive social work services: Challenges for practice and education (Vol. 4, No. 4). Psychology Press.

 

Baron, R.A. & Byrne, B. (2002). Social Psychology, Tenth Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

 

Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497.

 

Coon, D (2002). Psychology: A Journey. Independence: Cengage Learning

 

Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford law review, 1241-1299.

 

Gerrig, R.J. & Zimbardo, P.G. (2002). Psychology and Life, 16th Edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

 

Haugaard, M. (Ed.). (2002). Power: A reader. Manchester University Press.

 

Jaggar , A.M. (1983), “Radical Feminism and Human Nature,” Chapter 5, Feminist Politics and Human Nature, New York:  Rowman and Littlefield, 83-122. 

 

Hill-Collins, P. (1999). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. Routledge.

 

Johns, M., Inzlicht, M., & Schmader, T. (2008). Stereotype threat and executive resource depletion: examining the influence of emotion regulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137(4), 691.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress. Appraisal, and coping, 456.

 

McIntosh, P. (2003). White privilege and male privilege. Privilege: A reader, 147-160.

 

Myers, D.G. (2005). Social Psychology, 8th Edition. New York City: McGraw-Hill.

 

O’Hagan K (2001) Cultural Competence in the Caring Professions Jessica Kingsley Publications.

 

Pope-Davis, D. B., Coleman, H. L. K., Ming-Lui, W., & Toporek, R. L. (Eds.). (2003). Handbook of multicultural competencies in counseling &psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

 

Solorzano, D., Ceja, M., & Yosso, T. (2000). Critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial climate: The experiences of African American college students. Journal of Negro Education, 60-73.

 

Sellers, R. M., Rowley, S. A., Chavous, T. M., Shelton, J. N., & Smith, M. A. (1997). Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity: A preliminary investigation of reliability and constuct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(4), 805.

 

Sherman, D. K., & Cohen, G. L. (2006). The psychology of self-defense: Self-affirmation theory. Advances in experimental social psychology, 38, 183.

 

Steele, C. M. (1988). The psychology of self-affirmation: Sustaining the integrity of the self. Advances in experimental social psychology, 21, 261-302.

 

Sue, D. W. (2010). Microaggressions in everyday life: Race, gender, and sexual orientation. John Wiley & Sons. 

 

Sue, D. W., Rivera, D. P., Capodilupo, C. M., Lin, A. I., & Torino, G. C. (2010). Racial dialogues and White trainee fears: Implications for education and training. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16(2), 206.

 

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict.The social psychology of intergroup relations, 33(47), 74.

 

Williams, K. D. (1997). Social ostracism. In Aversive interpersonal behaviors (pp. 133-170). Springer US.

 

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